In answer to AL Black who says: “by definition a medieval hill town wasn’t designed: it just grew as different people built homes as best they could at the time” and Jamie who says that “medieval cities were absolutely planned”, both are right — i.e. planned cities can also develop organically over time, to create a balance between geometric and organic (where I’m arguing that both things are absolutely necessary for balance).

My point is that you can deliberately plan the organic element of cities now, rather than have it take centuries, and that organic layouts are feasible due to changes in infrastructure requirements that could be summarised as a shift away from industrial age hierarchies, to fractal style networks.

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Architect: I used to design buildings, now I design companies.

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